Racial disparity in America: How Do Whites Hold Blacks Back?

(05-07-2018, updated 07-11-2018)  Institutional Racism, Past and Present. A question I saw on Facebook, "What have whites done, since slavery, to prevent blacks from succeeding? Why do we owe them anything?" This series explores centuries of institutional racism, the many creative ways that whites have systematically excluded blacks from the American dream.

What Would Black History Be if the Reconstruction Era Had Continued?

(04-02-2014, updated 07-15-2018)  If only the Union Army had stayed in the South, if only the Reconstruction era had been longer... Lincoln went to war to get the South back into the Union. Although the war was mostly about slavery, his initial aim was not to abolish it. He wrote as much in a letter in 1862: "[...] If I could save the Union without freeing any slave I would do it, ..."

The Meridian Race Riot of 1871: the Failure of the Rickety Reconstruction Era

(03-25-2014, updated 07-15-2018)  The Meridian riot of 1871 illustrates the battles between freed blacks and the KKK and other white supremacists in the South during the Reconstruction era. And now for the piece of Southern history I've been working up to: the Meridian race riot of 1871. A sad and horrific part of black history, and the perfect illustration of the pathetic ending of the Reconstruction era. 

The Reconstruction Era :Federal Army Presence and Carpetbaggers and Black Representatives in Government, Oh My!

(03-24-2014, updated 07-15-2018)  Then federal army leaves, the KKK wins, the Jim Crow era begins, and the Reconstruction Era is forgotten. After the assassination of Abraham Lincoln, white Southerners imposed the Black Code, so blacks were free, but had no rights. In 1866 the Radical Republicans came into power in Congress, and they came down on the South like a ton of bricks.