Racial disparity: Institutional Racism from Black Codes to the Present

This entry is part 1 of 5 in the series How Whites Hold Blacks Back

Institutional racism didn't end in 1865. The present racial disparity is the result of segregation policies starting with black codes, then Jim Crow; some that lasted well into the 1970s, others that have been created since and are in place today

Segregation Policies, Redlining and the Present Racial Housing Disparity

This entry is part 2 of 5 in the series How Whites Hold Blacks Back

Segregation policies, racial covenants and racially biased redlining led to the current racially divided housing situation, the racial housing disparity and the racial asset disparity.

The Slave-based Economy: Slavery the Source of White Real Estate and Power

This entry is part 3 of 5 in the series How Whites Hold Blacks Back

To discuss race and real estate, we must go back to the beginning of white land use in America, when the South was a slave-based economy.

The Racial Wealth Gap: Two Reports on Income and Asset Disparity

This entry is part 4 of 5 in the series How Whites Hold Blacks Back

Two recent reports on racial income disparity and asset disparity address various reasons for the racial wealth gap. They look at black education, black housing disparity, black banking and black savings.

Black Incarceration: War on Crime, RDL, Racial Profiling, Stop and Frisk

This entry is part 5 of 5 in the series How Whites Hold Blacks Back

Mass black incarceration is in large part due to racial profiling--starting with President Johnson's War on Crime, then the RDL and stop and frisk policies in NYC.