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The Difference Between Slaves and Indentured Servants in Virginia Colony

In defense of his blackface, Virginia Governor Ralph Northam mentioned "indentured servants". The interviewer replied:"Aka slaves." Both were wrong. Slaves were not indentured servants and the terms are not synonyms. Some of the earliest black people in the Virginia Colony were indentured servants, yes, but 40 years later most blacks were enslaved ... Read More
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The American Revolution Along the Gulf: What Was Independence and For Whom?

The American Revolution: The 13 British colonies rebelled because they resented the taxation without representation. They won the Revolutionary War -- America's new government was the envy of the world. The westward move of the pioneers and the loss of the Native Americans' way of life was inevitable. Right? Independence Lost by Kathleen DuVal sets the record straight ... Read More
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VA Governor Ralph Northam in Blackface: Racist Entertainment in Context

A photo has surfaced of Virginia Governor Ralph Northam in blackface. Dressing up as a caricature of a black man is terrible; when put into historical context -- among the many other forms of racist entertainment and racist pseudoscience -- blackface represents a truly horrendous past ... Read More
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Slave-based Economy: Slavery Was the Source of White Real Estate and Power

To discuss race and real estate, we must go back to the beginning of white land use in America, when the South was a slave-based economy ... Read More
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Segregation Policies, Redlining and the Present Racial Housing Disparity

Segregation policies, racial covenants and racially biased redlining led to the current racially divided housing situation, the racial housing disparity and the racial asset disparity ... Read More
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Racial disparity: Institutional Racism from Black Codes to the Present

Institutional racism didn't end in 1865. The present racial disparity is the result of segregation policies starting with black codes, then Jim Crow; some that lasted well into the 1970s, others that have been created since and are in place today ... Read More
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Revisionist History and Slavery as Entertainment at The Black America Show

Nate Salsbury's Slavery Spectacular! Showed off the “Fun-Loving Darky of Old Slavery Days.” Really. So began revisionist history and nostalgia for the antebellum South. ... Read More
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Angola: From Slave Trader Isaac Franklin to Prison Plantation

The 13th Amendment Loophole Kept Slavery Alive. The 1800s interstate slave trade between the slave-breeding states and the Deep South was lucrative. Isaac Franklin became one of the South's richest landowners. One plantation in Louisiana was Angola ... Read More
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The Blurry Lines Between White Responsibility, White Privilege and Racism

Some thoughts about my own white responsibility, my white privilege and my unconscious racism, and a few shocking peeks at living while black in Trump Country ... Read More
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What Passes for American History Education is Pathetic, and Now I Know Why

American history education is comprised mostly of disjointed, unimportant personal anecdotes, dates of battles and numbers killed. Cause and effect are barely touched upon. I can see why kids think, "Booooring!" ... Read More
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The Confederate Flag Will No Longer Fly at the South Carolina State Capitol

The governor is removing the Confederate flag from the South Carolina State Capitol, but Southern politicians are still careful not to offend the folks who are proud of their Confederate heritage ... Read More
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White Man Kills Nine Black People in Church Shooting in Charleston S.C.

A young white man has killed nine people in a historic black church in Charleston, South Carolina. Several republicans, including some presidential candidates, are saying it wasn't a hate crime ... Read More
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What Would Black History Look Like if the Reconstruction Had Continued?

If the Federal Army had stayed in the South longer, if the Reconstruction had lasted longer, if America didn't experience the century-long setback that came after the Federal Army left, what would black history look like now? ... Read More
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The Meridian Race Riot of 1871: The Failure of the Rickety Reconstruction

The Meridian race riot of 1871 illustrates the battles between freedmen and the KKK and other white supremacists in the South during the Reconstruction era ... Read More
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The Reconstruction: Federal Army, Carpetbaggers, and Blacks in Office

Then, in 1875, federal army and the carpetbaggers leave, the KKK wins, Black Codes are put in place and the Jim Crow era begins. The Reconstruction is barely even mentioned in history textbooks ... Read More
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Slaveholders, Militant Immediatists and Others on the Abolition Spectrum

White Slaveholders, Black slaveholders, gradualists, immediatists, persuasive abolitionists,moral abolitionists and those who wanted all blacks shipped to Liberia -- they covered a broad spectrum of opinions that ranged from pro slavery to unconditional freedom ... Read More
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Free People of Color: Before Abolition It Was a Freedom with Qualifications

Before the abolition of slavery, freedom didn't mean the same thing for free people of color as it meant for whites. There were lots of formal and informal restrictions ... Read More
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What Is Good History Education: Civil War Battles or Why They Were Fought?

In good history education, the focus is not the war itself. (In this case the American Civil War.) It's why it was fought, the effects of a war on the following years, decades, centuries, and most importantly, what we learned from it ... Read More
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Slavery and the American Civil War: A Quick When and Why

There's really no such thing as a quick overview of American slavery and the Civil War, so this is turning into a series ... Read More
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Laura Plantation: A Sugar Plantation Tour With Barely a Mention of Slavery

Laura Plantation is the remains of one of the old sugar plantations of the Deep South, which depended completely on slavery for their success. They were brutal places where the death toll among slaves was always higher than the birth rate. You wouldn't know it from the tour ... Read More